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False tears, crocodile tears Legislation Beginning in the Colonial Eralegislation was introduced specifically against Chinese Indonesians. One of the first was in and required ethnic Chinese to carry a special pass at all times.
Benny G. Setiono
tionghoa dalam pusaran politik Chinese Indonesians were urged to choose Indonesian-sounding names[lower-alpha 3]  forbidden to practice their traditions, [lower-alpha 4]  and required to obtain extra proof of citizenship. The Mongols introduced Chinese technology to the island, particularly shipbuilding and Ancient Chinese coinage.
Their intervention also hastened the decline of the classical kingdoms and precipitated the rise of the Majapahit empire. They were led by the mariner Zheng Hewho led several expeditions to southeastern Asia between and Scholars believe that the Chinese Muslims became absorbed into the majority Muslim population,  until no Chinese communities remained when the Dutch arrived.
Distinct Chinese colonies emerged in ports tionghoa dalam pusaran politik the archipelago, including the pepper port of Banten.
Those so rounded up were put on ships to Ceylon. Other Chinese homes were subject to random searches, often accompanied by assault and robbery. As the situation became tenser, Governor General Tionghoa dalam pusaran politik Valckenier held an emergency plenary session.
On 7 Octobera group of hundreds of Chinese Indonesians attacked a Dutch stronghold in Tanah Abangkilling In response, a troop tionghoa dalam pusaran politik 1, Company soldiers led by Gustaaf Willem van Imhofftogether with militia Dutch: Pecinan were built to segregate the Chinese and other ethnic groups.
Those who did not carry a permit risked being arrested by security officers.
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The Governor-General also introduced a resolution in which forbade "foreign Asians" from living within the same neighbourhood as the native population. Survivors fled to the northern coast or to Dutch settlements for protection.
Setiono cites the Chinese's status as tax collectors and loan providers as a cause, as well as Diponegoro's belief that the Chinese brought bad luck upon tionghoa dalam pusaran politik campaign.
However, in practice the "foreign Orientals", were subject to separate regulations. During the same period, the Xinhai Revolution awakened Chinese nationalism in the ethnic Chinese, while Sarekat Islam worked tionghoa dalam pusaran politik awaken Indonesian nationalism in the Native Indonesian populace.
Of these riots, the largest was in Kudus, where a group of rioters burned and looted forty houses and numerous Chinese temples.
At least 16 were killed in the riots. Chinese organisations were disbanded and banned. Not long afterwards, ethnic Chinese were required to register themselves and pledge their allegiance to the Japanese army.
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Despite Japanese attempts to quell dissent,  there were several underground resistance movements led by ethnic Chinese. Over 1, people were arrested or killed by the Japanese occupying forces tionghoa dalam pusaran politik an attempt to prevent a multi-ethnic rebellion.
Ethnic Chinese were the largest single group targeted, with killed in the affair.