POLITICAL SOCIOLOGY: ITS MEANING,. EVOLUTION AND SCOPE. L. S. RATHORE. In recent years an increasing attention has been paid to the grow. Political SociologySocial context of political power Elite analysis Macrosociology and political change Political sociology and political theory. Are you looking for a Masters degree in Political Sociology? Compare postgraduate programmes and find out about course content, careers and job prospects.
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Political Sociology | Faculty of Political Sciences
Political sociology attempts to explore the dynamics between the two institutional systems introduced by the advent of Western capitalist system that are political sociology democratic constitutional liberal state and the capitalist economy.
While democracy promises impartiality and legal equality before political sociology citizens, the capitalist system results in unequal economic power and thus possible political inequality as well.
For pluralists,  the distribution of political power is not determined by economic interests but by multiple social divisions and political agendas.
The diverse political interests and beliefs of different factions work together through political sociology organizations to create a flexible and fair representation that in turn influences political parties which make the decisions.
The distribution of power is then achieved through the interplay of contending interest groups. Theoretical foundations political sociology else point to the Renaissance republican tradition of political sociology, importance of theories of social contract for understanding of relation of individual, society and state, political sociology of despotism and relation of old regimes and democracy.
Theoretical dialogue between Karl Marx and Max Weber is the basis on which academic political sociology emerged. Within the classical contribution, political sociology of elites and masses is studied.
Political sociology can trace its origins to the writings of Alexis de Tocqueville, Karl Marx, Emile Durkheim, and Max Weber, among others, but political sociology only emerged as a separate subfield within sociology after World War II. Beginning in the s, political sociologists increasingly turned toward macrotopics, such as political sociology the sources and consequences of revolutions, the role of political political sociology in shaping political outcomes, and large-scale comparative-historical studies of state development.
Today both micro- and macroscholarship can be found in political sociology. While covering much of the same ground, these also vary somewhat in topics emphasized or covered.
The most comprehensive introductory work, rare for giving significant attention to both micro- and macrotraditions in political sociology while still providing a discussion of theoretical classics, is that of Orum and Dale The elites are seen as much more differentiated and subject to a system of countervailing checks and balances.
Political Sociology |
In this approach the political elites are crucial to the extent that political sociology perform the mediating and adjusting role between the various institutional sectors of society.
On the basis of this model, the basic political issue is not so much the arbitrary exercise of political sociology by a small, political sociology elite as it is the necessity of creating conditions under which a differentiated elite can make effective decisions.
In the United States, according to the analysis of Shils and others, elite integration presents special problems because the creative role of the politician is not adequately understood and the respect accorded him by the other elite sectors and by the electorate at large is relatively low and unstable.
Empirical research into elite structures has distinguished between local—community, metropolitan, and regional—elites and national elite systems. Interestingly enough, for the United States both the power elite concept and the bargaining model highlight the separation of economic power and political elites at the local level.
Macrosociology and political change The elite perspective in political sociology political sociology been paralleled and broadened by those few but influential sociologists who specialize in the study of total societies and political change at the political sociology level.
Political Sociology - Sociology - Oxford Bibliographies
These men were political sociology by the holistic approach of social anthropologists and, in return, have had a profound impact on political scientists who deal with comparative politics. In the slow and almost discontinuous development of macrosociology the central issue has been political sociology analysis of the impact of modernization on representative institutions.
In turn, studies of the spread of industrial institutions have served to highlight the significance of differing political institutions in accounting for various patterns of national development and the persistence of national cultures.
Both men forecast intellectual trends, in that they did not produce national case studies. Instead they were seeking to explain, by implicit comparative analysis, particular sequences of societal change which were reflected, in the first case, in the outbreak of the French Revolution in contrast to the absence of such violence in England and, in the second case, in the late and authoritarian character of industrialization in Germany.
Explicit concern with the theoretical aspects of macrosociology is rooted in the diverse approaches to the common problems of societal integration offered by Max WeberEmile Durkheim, and Ferdinand Tonnieswhose works, among others, supplied the basis for the subsequent reformulations of Talcott Parsonsin The Structure of Social Action, published in At the theoretical-empirical level, the intellectual pioneer was W.
This monumental work set forth the empirical requirements for comparative analysis. His standpoint was both intensive, in that he sought to describe and understand the cultural values of Polish society, and comprehensive, in that he sought to analyze the full range of social institutions, from family political sociology kinship groups to political organization.
By juxtaposing the development of a relatively integrated Polish society in Europe with the social disorganization political sociology the Polish immigrants in the United States, he highlighted the differential role of values and of political institutions in the process of modernization and urbanization.
The intellectual vitality of macrosociological perspectives, however, derives less from formal theoretical considerations and more from the dramatic impact political sociology contemporary history—particularly, first, the rise and transformation of totalitarianism and, second, the rapid process of decolonization after World War ii.
Joseph Schumpeter, in Capitalism, Socialism, and Democracydeveloped a comprehensive and generic analysis of the social and political institutions on which capitalism was based. His ideas about the transformation of political sociology activities into a large-scale organization format, the negative role of intellectuals in the politics of capitalism, and the decline of representative institutions have been seminal formulations.
Comparison of the different elements of totalitarianism and their consequences is dealt with by C.