Your body constantly reacts with oxygen as you breathe and your cells produce energy. As a consequence of this activity, highly reactive molecules are produced known as free radicals. Free radicals interact with other molecules within cells. This can cause oxidative damage to proteins, membranes and genes. PDF | Oxidative stress refers to the imbalance between free radicals and their stabilizing agent's antioxidant enzymes in the body. Reactive oxygen species or. ROS are highly reactive molecules and can damage cell structures such as carbohydrates, nucleic acids, lipids, and proteins and alter their functions. In this review, we summarize the cellular oxidant and antioxidant systems and discuss the cellular effects and mechanisms of the oxidative stress.‎Abstract · ‎OXIDANTS · ‎ANTIOXIDANTS · ‎THE EFFECT OF.


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Veterinary Medicine International

Several reasons can be assigned to justify its importance: This review discusses the importance of oxidative stress in the body growth and development as well as proteomic and genomic evidences of its relationship with disease development, incidence of malignancies and autoimmune disorders, increased susceptibility to bacterial, viral, and parasitic diseases, and an interplay with prooxidants and antioxidants for maintaining oxidative stress and antioxidants sound health, which would be helpful in enhancing the knowledge of any biochemist, pathophysiologist, or medical personnel regarding this important issue.

Introduction Man and animals are exposed to a large number of biological and environmental factors like alterations in feed and husbandry practices, climatic variables, transportation, regrouping, the therapeutic and prophylactic activities, various stressors, and so forth.

The ability of the man and animal to oxidative stress and antioxidants against these factors is important for maintenance of their health and productivity. Today, the entire world is witnessing an upsurge in chronic health complications like cardiovascular disease, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, different forms of cancer, and other maladies.

Medical surveys suggest that diet may serve as a potential tool for the control of these chronic diseases [ 12 ]. Regular chewing of tobacco along with inadequate diet is the most prominent finding to mortality due to lung cancer in USA [ 3 ].

oxidative stress and antioxidants

Diets rich in fruit and oxidative stress and antioxidants have been reported to exert a protective effect against a variety of diseases, particularly the cardiovascular disease and cancer [ 4 — 10 ]. The primary nutrients thought to provide protection afforded by fruit and vegetables are the antioxidants [ 1112 ].

Oxidative Stress and Antioxidant Defense

In an analysis, Potter [ 13 ] reviewed epidemiological studies, the majority of which showed a protective effect of increased fruit and vegetable intake and concluded that the high content of polyphenolic antioxidants in fruits and vegetables is probably the main factor responsible for the beneficial effects.

This awareness has led to a tremendous increase in the proportion of fruits and vegetables rich in antioxidant molecules on the dining table in the last two decades, but still the risk of chronic health problems refuses to decline, rather it upsurged with an enhanced vigour, giving rise to a very important question—why?

If the health associated problems are due to oxidative stress and the dietary constituents are potent antioxidants, then the question of problem arrival should not be there.

What happens when these antioxidants reach the body tissues of interest or are there other factors still to be unrevealed? At that time, it was not accepted, but later on, after the famous address of Hans Selye at the prestigious College of France, it received approval among scientific community, but defining stress again troubled Selye over several years.

Today, stress can be defined as a process of altered biochemical homeostasis produced by psychological, physiological, or environmental oxidative stress and antioxidants [ 14 ].

Any stimulus, no matter whether social, physiological, or physical, that oxidative stress and antioxidants perceived by the body as challenging, threatening, or demanding can be labeled as a stressor.


The presence of a stressor leads to the activation of neurohormonal regulatory mechanisms of the body, through which it maintains the homeostasis [ 14 ]. The overall physiological impact of these factors and the adaptation ability of the body determine the variations in oxidative stress and antioxidants, development, productivity, and health status of the animals [ 15 — 17 ].

These alterations can be viewed as a consequence of general adaptation syndrome as postulated by Hans Selye [ 18 ] and usually return to their normal status once the stimulus has disappeared from the oxidative stress and antioxidants.

Oxidative Stress, Prooxidants, and Antioxidants: The Interplay

The authors have no funding or conflicts of interest to disclose. Abstract Reactive oxygen species ROS are produced by living organisms as a result of normal cellular metabolism and environmental factors, such as air pollutants or cigarette smoke.

ROS are highly reactive molecules and can damage cell structures such as carbohydrates, nucleic acids, lipids, oxidative stress and antioxidants proteins and alter their functions. Aerobic organisms have integrated antioxidant systems, which oxidative stress and antioxidants enzymatic and nonenzymatic antioxidants that are usually effective in blocking harmful effects of ROS.


However, in pathological conditions, the antioxidant systems can be overwhelmed. In this review, we summarize the cellular oxidant and antioxidant systems and discuss the cellular effects and mechanisms of the oxidative stress.

  • Impacts of Oxidative Stress and Antioxidants on Semen Functions
  • Oxidative Stress, Prooxidants, and Antioxidants: The Interplay
  • 1. Introduction