Cognitive and metacognitive processes (for instance, learning strategies and heuristic .. Selbstreguliertes Lernen als Selbstregulation von Lernstrategien-. Using hypermedia as a metacognitive tool for enhancing student learning? Beschreibung und Vermittlung wirksamer metakognitiver Lernstrategien und. Metacognition is the topic of the following subsection. of Chapter 3 Lernstrategien: Theoretische Grundlagen und empirische Befunde.
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Consciously checking the meaning of every word or phrase would interfere with reading fluency. Yet, proficient readers are alerted whenever they encounter unknown words or inconsistencies in the text.
In fact, the repertoire of metacognitive self-instructions should become good practice, albeit adaptively applied. Development of Metacognition Many students spontaneously acquire a repertoire of self-instructions, either by themselves through reading practice, or by observing good reading models parents, teachers, etc.
Skill acquisition, however, is constrained by the developmental trajectory of metacognition. Metacognitive lernstrategien a nutshell, the development of metacognition can be characterized by the emergence of metamemory at the age of 5 to 6 years, followed by an expansion of metacognitive knowledge in early childhood, and the incremental use of strategies and skills from late childhood into adolescence Veenman, metacognitive lernstrategien.
Crucial to the development of ToM is the perception of a child older than 4 years that another person may not know what the child knows. A longitudinal study of Lockl and Schneider evidenced that ToM at the age of 4 to 5 years is a precursor of later metamemory performance at the age of 5 to 6 years.
According to FlavellToM is prerequisite to thinking about mental states. Thus, ToM is a stepping-stone for readers to take different perspectives, to understand the different positions of protagonists in a story, and to differentiate between fact, belief, and fiction.
Executive functions EF refer to processes of inhibition, selective attention, working memory efficiency, and elementary forms of planning.
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EF capacity is related to the maturation metacognitive lernstrategien the prefrontal cortex from early childhood throughout adolescence. Blair and Razza established metacognitive lernstrategien especially inhibitory control is a strong predictor of early literacy in children of 3 to 5 years old.
Inhibition metacognitive lernstrategien prevent readers from rushing through a text while ignoring relevant features. Preschool children already experience that they sometimes forget or inaccurately recollect knowledge or events.
Once in primary school, children become aware of task demands and memory strategies, such as rereading or rehearsing difficult materials. Metamemory rapidly increases with age until it reaches a peak in late adolescence Schneider, A longitudinal study by Kurtz and Borkowski indicated that metamemory of children in the age of 7 to 9 years facilitates the acquisition of summarization skills for reading comprehension at the age of 10 to 12 years.
Thus, declarative metamemory indirectly affects later memory performance through the acquisition of strategies.
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During the early school years, the scope of metacognitive knowledge is gradually broadened to metacognitive lernstrategien aspects of cognitive functioning.
Children learn to differentiate tasks and demands, they become aware of their own capacities and limitations, and they increasingly recognize conditions for strategic behavior. This metacognitive lernstrategien knowledge is the overture to the development of metacognitive reading-comprehension skills in successive years.
metacognitive lernstrategien Moreover, the educational focus on technical reading during early primary-school years Chall, draws less on metacognitive lernstrategien strategy use. Once children have learned to read more or less fluently, a shift from technical to comprehensive reading calls for the actual application of metacognitive strategies.
Development of Metacognitive Strategies and Skills Children younger than 8 years are not entirely devoid of metacognitive strategies metacognitive lernstrategien skills if tasks are made appropriate to their interest and level of understanding. Even 5-year-old children may demonstrate rudimentary forms of planning and self-correction in playful situations, such as distributing dolls over a limited number of chairs Whitebread et al.
Furthermore, children may engage in comprehension-monitoring activities before they are fluent readers, when prompted to do so Baker, Apparently, metacognitive skills already develop at a basic level alongside metacognitive knowledge metacognitive lernstrategien preschool or early primary-school years, but they become more sophisticated and academically oriented when formal educational requires the utilization of a metacognitive repertoire Veenman, a.
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From the age of metacognitive lernstrategien years on, children give evidence of a steep increase in frequency and quality of metacognitive skills Alexander et al.
At all ages, however, profound individual differences in the execution of metacognitive skills can be observed, indicating a differential developmental pace of metacognitive skills among students Veenman et al. Without further instruction, some students hardly acquire or learn to produce metacognitive skills, while others spontaneously expand and refine their metacognitive lernstrategien over time.