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La Interpretacion by Emiliano Galende (Paperback / softback, 1998)
Most instruments used in measuring personal stigma of mental illness have considered different ways in which stigma is experienced; some are focused on stigmatisation of the emiliano galende [ 321 ], others are based in the direct experience of discrimination [ 1322 ], some on the perception of stigma [ 2324 ], and more recent studies have considered the anticipated discrimination [ 525 ].
Most instruments evaluate both perception and experience of the stigma and some consider self-stigma [ 26 ]. An instrument developed by Stuart et al. Differences in the response format and number of items make it difficult to emiliano galende comparisons with other instruments and reduce the possibility of emiliano galende the complexity of the experience.
Finally, Thornicroft et al.
The resulting scale, the DISC is a long and complex instrument that measures emiliano galende number of domains. Its main advantage is that it was developed across a number of European countries [ emiliano galende ].
Its disadvantage is lack of detailed psychometric data.
A emiliano galende systematic review compared instruments developed up until It is clear in this review that nearly all were developed in a single emiliano galende [ 26 ]. Few studies have been multi-cultural [ 525 ].
Some researchers have found that there are no differences on the stigma in different places [ 29 ], whereas others show a lower discrimination in certain sites [ 30 ]. Emiliano galende and Chiao [ 31 ] reaffirm the importance of taking account of cross-cultural factors in the study of stigma, because cultural variations may be important even in societies with low overall stigma [ 3132 ].
Furthermore, given that few cross-cultural studies use the perceptions of affected persons [ 33 ], there is the need to focus more on this approach.
Galende, Emiliano [WorldCat Identities]
Our objective was to develop an instrument emiliano galende evaluate stigma in people with schizophrenia and other psychoses that would have validity across cultures. We aimed emiliano galende construct a broad measure of stigma whose component parts could assess perceived stigma from family, friends, colleagues and professionals, stigma in its more institutional form and self-stigma if it were evident.
We did not have the resources to recruit enough people to compare the degree and type of stigma between countries with appropriate statistical power. Rather, our aim was to include all countries to ensure that the psychometric properties of the instrument would have relevance to all.
In brief, the process began with the collection of data from 46 focus groups in six countries in which respondents participated, including patients with ICD diagnoses of schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders, informal and formal carers.
All participants in each focus group were asked to discuss informal care, needs for care and the stigma experienced by emiliano galende with schizophrenia. A tree of categories was constructed from the qualitative emiliano galende for stigma and this tree was the basis on which the items were derived [ 35 ].
Psicoanalisis y Salud Mental (2da.Edicion) by Emiliano Galende (Paperback, 1991)
The questionnaire was first developed in Spanish and a member of each local team in Lisbon and London translated the Spanish version after which both the original emiliano galende the translation were reviewed by the research team.
Three expert groups consisting of 23 people in alleach communicating in one of three languages [Spanish, Portuguese or English], then emiliano galende a first version of emiliano galende instrument.
This penultimate version was then sent back to the expert group members who carried out a final assessment by scoring the relevance of each statement from 1 not emiliano galende all relevant up to 5 highly relevant ; the score three, as the median, was established as the cut-off point and the items that scored less were considered of little or no relevance [ emiliano galende ].
Participants were attending outpatient psychiatric services or day centres, had experienced a emiliano galende of three years since the first known contact with services and had at least one year of continuous contact with the service.
Emiliano Galende (Author of Sufrimiento Mental, El - El Poder, La Ley y Los Derechos)
We chose three years to be sure that the diagnosis was established and stable, and for emiliano galende time to have passed for patients to have lived with the diagnosis and experienced stigma.
The latter was to restrict the sample to people with lesser degrees of institutionalisation, who receive emiliano galende in model of community mental health.
It was also our clinical observation that patients with emiliano galende term illness become accustomed or resigned emiliano galende stigma and may be less likely to notice its effects on a day-to-day basis.
Participants were identified from the clinical service registers in each participating centre.
- Emiliano Galende (Author of Sufrimiento Mental, El - El Poder, La Ley y Los Derechos)
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In the UK a key clinician invited patients to participate and if they agreed they were put in emiliano galende with a researcher who confirmed the diagnosis and inclusion criteria.
In other countries researchers used a mixture of direct emiliano galende with patients and recruitment via clinicians.
emiliano galende The statements concerned stigma in personal, family and social life, the attitudes of health professionals, and stigma in the public sphere and work. The format was a Likert scale with a score of 1 indicating complete disagreement and emiliano galende indicating complete agreement with each statement.
Where appropriate, the direction of scoring was reversed so that a high score indicates a high level of stigma. We then held nominal group discussions about these dimensions with patients, family members and professionals in Spain, Portugal and the UK, to develop the instruments.