Read 5 answers by scientists with 1 recommendation from their colleagues to the question asked by Kundan Kumar on May 25, Coprecipitation method. The most utilized method of SPIONs synthesis is the coprecipitation method. Usually SPIONs are obtained by the coprecipitation of Fe(OH)2 and Fe(OH)3 suspensions. 2· 4H2O and FeCl. 3· 6H2O (proportion of 1: 2) in three different cases using two bases (sodium hydroxide and hydroxide ammonium) as precipitants. The chemical coprecipitation method was selected for its simplicity, convenience, reproducibility, and low cost in the use of glassware.


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By the Faraday-Lenz principle of induction, an electromotive force FEM is induced in the detection coils, related with magnetic moment of the sample.


Polydispersion of Samples The polydispersity index PDI is a mathematical definition that accounts for the relative error between curve coprecipitation method and experimental values [ 18 — 21 ].

PDI indicates the quality of the dispersion. Absolute and relative coprecipitation method show approximations between the real number and the experimental number.

Journal of Nanomaterials

In order to evaluate the error precision, it is necessary to consider the magnitude of. For this, the relative error is used. Coprecipitation method relative error considers the magnitude of the numbers involved.

For this reason, the relative error is mostly used to evaluate the precision coprecipitation method the calculus done. Results and Discussion Size distributions of magnetite and maghemite nanoparticles synthesized in this study were obtained by analysis of TEM images.

Figure 4 coprecipitation method TEM image of magnetite nanoparticles synthesized by Procedure 1.


Size distributions for the magnetite and maghemite nanoparticles prepared by Procedure 1. Size distributions for the magnetite and maghemite nanoparticles prepared by Procedure 2.

Size distributions for the magnetite and maghemite nanoparticles prepared by Procedure 3. Procedures 1 and 2 show that coprecipitation method maghemite nanoparticles obtained by open system oxidation of the initially synthesized magnetite present average coprecipitation method values well below their precursors.

A possible explanation is that the oxidation process with the adjusted 3. As was observed in Figure 4magnetite electron micrographs coprecipitation method that the quality of dispersion for the particles is monodisperse, which is unusual for particles prepared by coprecipitation method method.

Results revealed that MgP1 nanoparticles present a pseudospherical shape and MgP3 nanoparticles show a more uniform shape with an average diameter of 9.


Polydispersity indexes, coprecipitation method from the average of the nanoparticle diameters, according to the histograms, and fitted by the Gaussian law Figures 12and 3 are in the range of 0. These values indicate relative homogeneity in the system, with coprecipitation method distribution, and smaller size, consequently describing a monodisperse condition [ 19 ].

Coprecipitation - Wikipedia

The differences in size between the nanomaterials obtained by coprecipitation with NaOH and NH4OH are due to the differences in the process of nucleation and coprecipitation method growth coprecipitation method synthesis. Taking into account the fact that NH4OH is a weak base, it produces a smaller number of magnetite cores, which favors crystal growth and Ostwald ripening, resulting in an amount of particles with larger sizes.

When NaOH coprecipitation method used, considering that it is a strong base, the formation of a greater number of cores occurs, which jeopardizes their growth, as also observed by Vayssieres [ 22 ] and Gnanaprakas et al.

In a comparison study, the peaks of the materials were observed as having the predominant phase of the powder-type cubic crystal structure corresponding to magnetite spinel.


Maghemite samples presented similar diffraction peaks when compared to magnetite peaks, making their identification difficult. Thus, to facilitate the differentiation of maghemite species, two secondary peaks with low intensity were observed coprecipitation method Therefore, the dark brown powder obtained coprecipitation method the established conditions for this study showed the presence of maghemite, which corroborates the observed X-ray diffraction data obtained.